## Quantum Physics and Notable Physicists

The QEnergySpa is based on quantum physics. Quantum physics is a science not very well understood by the average member of the public. Niels Bohr says it best: “Anybody who is not shocked by quantum mechanics has not *understood* it”!

In order to understand the QEnergySpa, BEFE technology, it may be necessary to understand the basic principles of nature (natural laws), matter and the universe, right down to the smallest accepted unit, ‘Rutherford’s Atom’ and/or ‘the Quantum Model of the Atom’. It is also helpful to understand quantum field science and the history behind quantum physics.

### What is quantum physics?

To understand this question requires first a simple step in perception, which anyone can take. You simply have to discard the notion of atoms as billiard balls and replace it with a notion of them as waves or vibrations. It is just a new way of looking at the same old reality. Quantum Physics is basedon the one overlooked unifying physical principle. It completely replaces the current atomic theories, allowing explanation of all actions and functions including anomalies and random chaotic events that occur naturally in nature, ranging from the simplest physical reaction through to the complexity of the human biomass.

Originally the word ‘quantum’ was first applied to mainstream physics by **Heisenberg** when he discovered that energy is not a continuous stream but in fact consists of tiny packages, which he called quanta. From this discovery, a whole science developed which is called Quantum Physics.

**Definition of Quantum Physics:**

The study and theory of * tiny packages, which are called quanta. * Quantum theory deals with the mathematical equations of motion and interaction of atomic and subatomic particles, incorporating the concepts of the wave-particle duality.

*Matter is made of Waves* **Dr Milo Wolff in 1986, John Beaulieu** (**1995**), **Dr. Hans Jenny** suggested in **1972, Max Born 1954 **Nobel Prize in physics in ** 1954, Paul Dirac & Erwin Schrodinger noble laureate 1933, De Broglie ** Nobel Prize **1929, Albert Einstein** Nobel Prize in ** 1921, Niels Bohr ** The Nobel Prize in Physics **1922, Werner Karl Heisenberg** Nobel prize 1932, **H. P. Duerr late 1930’s** and **Max Planck** Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

*The discrete energy states of Matter can be determined by Wave Equations*.

When frequency **f** and de Broglie wavelength **y** are substituted into general wave equations it becomes possible to express energy **E** and momentum **mv** as wave functions. **Erwin Schrodinger**for which he won the Nobel Prize in **1933.**

* “A form that appears solid is actually created by an underlying vibration”. ***John Beaulieu**, **1995**

* “Every cell has its own frequency and a number of cells with the same frequency create a new frequency which is in harmony with the original, which in its turn possibly forms an organ that also creates a new frequency in harmony with the two preceding ones *. The key to understanding how we can heal the body lies in our understanding of how different frequencies influence genes, cells and various structures in the body”. **Dr. Hans Jenny 1972**

* “The laws of physics and the structure of matter ultimately depend upon the waves from the total of matter in a universe *. Every particle communicates its wave state with all other matter so that the particle structure, energy exchange and the laws of physics are properties of the entire ensemble”. **Wolff 1998**

* “The nature of reality and of consciousness is a coherent whole, which is never static or complete but which is an unending process of movement and unfoldment….. Particles are not individual entities, but are actually extensions of the same fundamental something”. * ** David Bohm early 1980’s **

*“Electromagnetic energy is the most plentiful constant energy of our universe”*. Jon Barron.

### Quantum Field Science

Electromagnetic fields are present everywhere in our environment and are invisible to the human eye. Besides natural sources, the electromagnetic spectrum also includes fields generated by man-made sources such as x-rays which are employed to diagnose broken limbs.

The field concept was originally developed* *by **Michael Faraday,** Feynman suggested that f* ields are used to describe all cases where two bodies separated in space, exert a force on each other *. ** The field is thus a kind of “middleman” for transmitting forces. **

*Each type of force (electric, magnetic, nuclear, or gravitational) has its own appropriate field; a body experiences the force due to a given field only if the body itself, it also a source of that kind of field*.

Physicists developed the quantum field theory, in which the quantum field or the vibration, is understood as the one true reality and the particle or form and the wave or motion, are only two polar manifestations of the one reality, vibration –* ***John Beaulieu**, ** 1995. **In other words, afield is a signature emanation of an object. Furthermore, it is a culmination of many constituents and/or actions/functions that make it up. Hence,** ** ** Matter is to be considered as function of the field. **

Since every event is constantly in motion and evolving within its own environmental constraints and those environments are a function of the outcome of the previous evolvement, then this can be considered as “fluid” motion, with no pauses, stops or stationary events occurring within its construct. A simple analogy to illustrate this conceptis water. When in its natural environmental state based on its location and functionality, it is liquid. When heated it vaporizes to steam and when frozen, it solidifies to ice. As its environment is altered, so is its representative format. In reference to the observer however, it always remains water.

There are two elements or properties of a field: the frequency and its corresponding wavelength. Fields of different frequencies interact with the body in different ways. One can imagine electromagnetic waves as series of very regular waves that travel at an enormous speed, the speed of light. The frequency simply describes the number of oscillations or cycles per second, while the term wavelength describes the distance between one wave and the next. Hence wavelength and frequency are inseparably intertwined: the higher the frequency the shorter the wavelength. Extract from the **World Health Organization (WHO), 2008**

**1687**** ****Sir Isaac Newton **is one of the greatest scientists the world has known. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, * effectively laying the groundwork for classical mechanics which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe * for the next three centuries and is the basis for modern engineering.

**1820**** ****Andre Marie Ampere, **the French scientist, discovered the relationship between magnetism and electricity and defined the electrical measurement that bears his name: the ampere, or “amp” for short.

**1800**** Sir Humphry Davy, **a British chemist and physicist, founded the new field of electrochemistry. When passing an electrical current through some substances (a process later called electrolysis), these substances decomposed. His research suggested that electrical forces could act (generate current) only when the electrolyte was capable of oxidizing one of the metals, and that the intensity of its effect (the voltage generated) was directly related to the reactivity of the electrolyte with the metal. His work led him to propose that *“the elements of a chemical compound are held together by electrical forces.*

**1800****’s Michael Faraday** an English chemist and physicist and Sir Davy’s assistant, was one of the most influential scientists in history, *establishing the basis for the magnetic field concept* in physics. He discovered electromagnetic induction diamagnetism and electrolysis. He established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.

**Mid ****1800 James Clerk Maxwell, **the Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist, founded a set of equations in electricity, magnetism and inductance— Maxwell’s equations — including an important modification to the Ampere’s Circuital Law. It was the most unified model of electromagnetism yet. He became famous for introducing to the physics community a detailed model of light as an * electromagnetic phenomena *, building upon the earlier hypothesis by Faraday (The Faraday Effect).

In **Late ****1800 Thomas Alva Edison,** also a notable American, published numerous inventions including the following: the Printing Telegraph, Automatic Telegraph, Electric Pen, Carbon Telephone Transmitter, Phonograph, Dynamo, Incandescent Electric Lamp, Electric Motor, Carbons for Incandescent Lamps. * In 1883 he observed the flow of electrons from a heated filament—the so-called “Edison effect”, Projecting Kinetoscope *, 1900 Storage Battery. In 1879, he publicly demonstrated his incandescent electric light bulb.

In **18****93 Nikola Tesla **demonstrated the *‘wireless’ communication radio* and was credited as the inventor of the radio in 1943. He was widely respected as America’s greatest electrical engineer. Much of his early work pioneered modern electrical engineering and many of his discoveries were of groundbreaking importance. * The SI unit measuring magnetic flux density or magnetic induction (known as the * Tesla) was named in his honor. * He discovered many secrets of energetic interactions and did experiments with new energy forms *. Some of his developments still are not understood by other scientists and to this day only a small part of the results of his research is known.

**Dr. Alfred Partheil, end of the 1800’s. ** On the Numerical Relationship of Atomic Weights end of the 1903 Dr. Alfred Partheil was * the first scientist to suggest a correlation between substances, or specifically chemical elements, and frequency.*

**Max P****lanck 1900 ** the German physicist was considered to be the * founder of quantum theory * and received the Nobel Prize in Physics in1918. Max Planck discovered* The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) & Standing Wave Interactions * (which occur at discrete Frequencies f) * explains Quantum Energy States of Matter & Light ‘Quanta’ *(E=hf).** **He made a profound discovery in modern physics/Quantum Theory. He showed, from purely formal/mathematical foundations, that light must be emitted and absorbed in discrete amounts if it was to correctly describe observed phenomena.

**H****end****rik Antoon Lorentz ** & **Pieter Zeeman** received the ** Nobel Prize ** in Physics in** 1902 **for their research into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena – *They found that ** light waves were due to oscillations or electromagnetic wave nature of an electric charge in the atom *. This was verified experimentally by measuring the change in the wavelength of the light produced demonstrating the effect of a strong magnetic field on the oscillations, known as the ‘Zeeman effect’. Lorentz’ theoretical work on the electromagnetic theory of light assumed that charged particles called electrons carry currents or transport electric charge and their vibrations are the cause of electromagnetic waves.

**Antoine Henri Becquerel **, **Pierre Curie** and **Marie Curie**. They received the Nobel Prize in Physics in **1903 **in recognition of the discovery of spontaneous radioactivity. * They discove**red the chemical elements radium and polonium. These radioactive elements contributed to the understanding of atoms on which modern nuclear physics is based *.

The experiments on radioactivity contributed to our knowledge of the structure of the atom and was later used by Rutherford to formulate the structure of the atom.

**Ernest Rutherford 1911 ** proposed a revolutionary view of the atom. He suggested that * the atom consisted of a small, dense core of positively charged particles in the centre (or nucleus) of the atom, surrounded by a swirling ring of electrons *. Rutherford’s atom resembled a tiny solar system with the positively charged nucleus always at the centre and the electrons revolving around the nucleus. He showed that the atom consisted of a positively charged nucleus, with negatively charged electrons. This is a realization within quantum theory* *of a classical object that has been called a “Rutherford atom”.

The word ‘quantum’ was first referred to by **Werner Karl** **Heisenberg** ** 1920 **a German physicist and Nobel laureate in 1932, when he discovered * that energy is not a continuous stream but in fact consists of tiny packages, which he called quanta *. He saw light as a particle and a wave, he stated that our universe is based on the concept of both, rather than the idea of either/or. In the late 20’s, following de Broglie’s idea, the question was posed: if an electron travelled as a wave, could you locate the precise position of the electron within the wave?** **Heisenberg answered no in what he called the *uncertainty principle.*

‘Anybody who is not shocked by quantum mechanics has not* understood* it!’ – ** Niels Bohr **. Bohr** **received The Nobel Prize in Physics in **1922 **while investigating of the structure of atoms and the radiation emanating from them.** **He expanded upon Rutherford’s theory in 1913, by proposing that electrons travel only in certain successively larger orbits. He came up with a Quantum Model of the Atom. He suggested that the outer orbits could hold more electrons than the inner ones and that these outer orbits determine the atom’s chemical properties. Bohr also described the way atoms emit radiation by suggesting that when an electron jumps from an outer orbit to an inner one, that it emits light. Bohr also postulated that * an atom would not emit radiation while it was in one of its stable states but rather only when it made a transition between states *. * The frequency of the radiation so emitted would be equal to the difference in energy between those states divided by Planck’s constant.*

** Albert Einstein, ** the German Physicist, received the Nobel Prize in **1921** but not for his theory on relativity, rather for his 1905 work on the photoelectric effect. He said that *“all matter is energy”.* Over a thirty year period, h* e continuously built on and improved his own theory of energy and the universe. Einstein paved the way for modern-day quantum Physics, building the conceptual model from which we understand the Human energy field and human consciousness *. “All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me no nearer to the answer to the question, ‘What are light quanta?’ Nowadays every Tom, Dick and Harry thinks he knows it, but he is mistaken”. Albert Einstein, 1954.

“Since the theory of general relativity implies the representation of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material points cannot play a fundamental part,** **nor can the concept of motion”. Albert Einstein is correct that there are no discrete particles and that the particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. But it is the high Wave-Amplitude of the Wave-Centre of a Spherical Standing Wave in Space (not of a continuous spherical force field) that causes the particle effect. Thus of three concepts, *particles*, *force fields*, and *motion*, it finally turns out that Motion, as the spherical wave motion of space, is the correct concept, as it then explains both particles and fields.

“Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept empty space loses its meaning. Since the theory of general relativity implies the representation of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material points cannot play a fundamental part, nor can the concept of motion. The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high.” Albert Einstein

**In 1923 Robert Andrews Millikan **won the Nobel Prize in Physics, for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect. The maximum kinetic energy that any photoelectron can possess, the energy required to free an electron from the material, varies with the particular material.

Earning a Nobel Prize in Physics **1929** for his discovery of the * wave nature of electrons and suggested that *electrons, like light, could act as both particles and waves. ** De Broglie **said “If electrons are waves, then it kind of makes sense that they don’t give off or absorb photons unless they change energy levels. If it stays in the same energy level, the wave isn’t really orbiting or “vibrating” the way an electron does in Rutherford’s model, so there’s no reason for it to emit any radiation. And if it drops to a lower energy level… the wavelength would be longer, which means the frequency would decrease, so the electron would have less energy. Then it makes sense that the extra energy would have to go some place, so it would escape as a photon … and the opposite would happen if a photon came in with the right amount of energy to bump the electron up to a higher level”.

**Erwin Schrodinger **, Austrian physicist, famous for his contributions to quantum mechanics, especially the Schrödinger equation, for which he won the Nobel Prize (along with Dirac) in 1933. He made a profound discovery in 1927 by * showing that the discrete energy states of Matter could be determined by Wave Equations *. **Erwin Schrodinger **discovered that when frequency *f*** **and de Broglie wavelength *y*** **were substituted into general wave equations it becomes possible to express energy *E*** **and momentum *mv*** **as wave functions – thus, a confined particle (e.g. an electron in an atom/molecule) with known energy and momentum functions could be described with a certain wave function. After extensive correspondence with personal friend Albert Einstein, he proposed the Schrödinger’s cat thought experiment. “The task is, not so much to see what no one has yet seen; but to think what nobody has yet thought, about that which everybody sees”.

* Certain standing wave frequencies of matter corresponded to certain energy states. The agreement of observed frequencies and Schrodinger’s Wave Equations further established the fundamental importance of Quantum Theory and thus the Wave properties of both light and matter. *

The resulting model of the atom is called the **quantum model** of the atom.

**Paul Dirac **won the Nobel Prize in **1933** with *Erwin Schrodinger*.** **His contribution was the ‘*Quantum Physics Dirac Equation*’** **which is the** **mathematical more so than the theoretical aspects of quantum mechanics that sought to find a relation between quantum theory and the conservation of energy in special relativity. The importance of Dirac’s work lies essentially in his famous wave equation, which introduced special relativity into Schrödinger’s equation. Taking into account the fact that, mathematically speaking, relativity theory and quantum theory are not only distinct from each other, but also oppose each other, Dirac’s work could be considered a fruitful reconciliation between the two theories.

** Max Born **proposed a statistical interpretation of the wave function called the ‘Quantum Physics Probability Waves’ and earned the Nobel Prize in physics in **1954.**

**Richard Phillips Feynman 1970 **was an American physicist known for * expanding the theory of quantum electrodynamics and particle theory *. For his work on quantum electrodynamics Feynman was a joint recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965, together with *Julian Schwinger* and *Sin-Itiro Tomonaga.* He developed a widely-used pictorial representation for the mathematical expressions governing the behaviour of subatomic particles, which later became known as Feynman diagrams. Simple graphs represent possible variations of interactions and provide for precise mathematical equations. He said: “The charge on a particle is proportional to the probability that it will emit or absorb a photon”.

The field concept was developed* *by *M. Faraday* based on his investigation of the lines of force that appear to leave and return to a magnet at its poles. Feynman suggests that f* ields are used to describe all cases where two bodies separated in space exert a force on each other *. If a change occurs at the source, its effect propagates outward through the field at a constant speed and is felt at the detector only after a certain delay in time. * The field is thus a kind of “middleman” for transmitting forces *. * Each type of force (electric, magnetic, nuclear, or gravitational) has its own appropriate field; a body experiences the force due to a given field only if the body itself it also a source of that kind of field *. Quantum field theory applied to the understanding of electromagnetism is called quantum electrodynamics (QED) and it has proved spectacularly successful in describing the interaction of light with matter. The calculations, however, are often complex and are usually carried out with the aid of Feynman diagrams. Feynman’s talks about the conception of charged particles having Spherical Electromagnetic ‘advanced and retarded waves’ which are later called ‘In and Out Waves’ by Wolff.

**1979 **The German physicist **Burkhard Heim** came up with a 6-dimensional unified field theory based on Einstein’s theory of relativity, specifically Quantum physics. He concluded that * before any chemical reaction [can take place] at least one electron must be activated by a photon with a certain wavelength and enough energy.*

**Dr. Hans Jenny **suggested in **1972 **that evolution is a result of vibrations and that their nature determined the ultimate outcome. He speculated that * every cell had its own frequency and that a number of cells with the same frequency created a new frequency which was in harmony with the original, which in its turn possibly formed an organ that also created a new frequency in harmony with the two preceding ones *. Jenny was saying that the key to understanding how we can heal the body with the help of tones lies in our understanding of how different frequencies influence genes, cells and various structures in the body. He also suggested that through the study of the human ear and larynx we would be able to come to a deeper understanding of the ultimate cause of vibrations. Jenny sums up these phenomena in a three-part unity. * The fundamental and generative power is in the vibration which, with its periodicity, sustains phenomena with its two poles *. At one pole we have form, the figurative pattern. At the other is motion, the dynamic process. These three fields – vibration and periodicity as the ground field and form and motion as the two poles – constitute an indivisible whole, Jenny says, even though one can dominate sometimes.

**John Bell’s **Inequality Quantum Mechanics EPR Paradox** 1964 **published his mathematical proof, a theorem that elegantly proved that if momentum and position were absolute values (that is, they exist whether they were measured or not) then an inequality, *Bell’s Inequality*, would be satisfied. Scientists have said that there were “hidden variables” that exist in the photons that allow them to behave this way. Hidden variables are variables that we have yet to discover. Bell proved mathematically that this was impossible with this inequality.

Bell’s Inequality equation: * Number (A, not B) + Number (B, not C) >= Number (A, not C) *

Einstein was in agreement with Bell: “I think that a particle must have a separate reality independent of the measurements. That is an electron has spin, location and so forth even when it is not being measured. I like to think that the moon is there even if I am not looking at it”.

**David Bohm early 1980’s **proposed his interpretation of the nature of physical reality, which is rooted in his theoretical investigations, especially quantum theory and relativity theory. “I would say that in my scientific and philosophical work, my main concern has been with understanding * the nature of reality in general and of consciousness in particular as a coherent whole, which is never static or complete but which is an unending process of movement and unfoldment *….”. (David Bohm: Wholeness and the Implicate Order)

Bohm believes the reason subatomic particles are able to remain in contact with one another regardless of the distance separating them is not because they are sending some sort of mysterious signal back and forth, but because their separateness is an illusion.* *He argues that * at some deeper level of reality such particles are not individual entities, but are actually extensions of the same fundamental something.*

The **Aharonov-Bohm **effect, sometimes called the * Ehrenberg-Siday-Aharonov-Bohm effect *, is a quantum mechanical phenomenon by which a charged particle is affected by electromagnetic fields in regions from which the particle is excluded. The earliest form of this effect was predicted by * Werner Ehrenberg *** ** and** ** *R.E. Siday* in **1949**, and similar effects were later rediscovered by Aharonov and Bohm in **1959**. Such effects are predicted to arise from both magnetic fields and electric fields, but the magnetic version has been easier to observe. In general, the profound consequence of Aharonov-Bohm effect is that knowledge of the classical electromagnetic field acting *locally* on a particle is not sufficient to predict its quantum-mechanical behavior.

The most commonly described case, often called the * Aharonov-Bohm solenoid effect *, is when the wave function of a charged particle passing around a long solenoid experiences a phase shift as a result of the enclosed magnetic field, despite the magnetic field being zero in the region through which the particle passes. This phase shift has been observed experimentally by its effect on interference fringes. (There are also magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effects on bound energies and scattering cross sections, but these cases have not been experimentally tested.) An electric Aharonov-Bohm phenomenon was also predicted, in which a charged particle is affected by regions with different electrical potentials but zero electric field, and this has also seen experimental confirmation. A separate “molecular” Aharonov-Bohm effect was proposed for nuclear motion in multiply-connected regions, but this has been argued to be essentially different, depending only on local quantities along the nuclear path (Sjöqvist, 2002).

John Beaulieu, in his book Music and Sound in the Healing Arts (**1995**), draws a comparison between his own three-part structure which in many respects resembles Jenny’s and the conclusions researchers working with subatomic particles have reached. “There is a similarity between *cymatic pictures* and quantum particles. In both cases; that which appears to be a solid form is also a wave. This is the great mystery with sound: there is no solidity! “A form that appears solid is actually created by an underlying vibration”.

In an attempt to explain the unity in this dualism between wave and form, * physics developed the quantum field theory, in which the quantum field or in our terminology, the vibration, is understood as the one true reality, and the particle or form, and the wave or motion, are only two polar manifestations of the one reality, vibration, says Beaulieu.*

The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) was formalised by mathematical physicist ** Dr Milo Wolff in 1986. **The WSM explains and solves many of the problems of modern physics from the most simple science foundation possible.

Matter is made of Waves. Currently Physics represents matter as ‘particles’ which generate ‘forces/fields’ that act on other particles at a distance in Space and Time. The Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter explains how the particle is formed from the Wave-Centre of the Spherical Waves. Fields are caused by wave interactions of the spherical IN and OUT Waves with other matter (explaining action-at-a-distance). The Spherical In-Waves are formed from the Out-Waves of other matter in the universe which then explains Mach’s Principle, i.e. the mass of a body is determined by all other matter in the universe. Wolff (1986). He discovered two things (both of which deserve a Nobel Prize in their own right):

Firstly, from reading Feynman’s PhD thesis he was aware of Feynman’s conception of charged particles which ‘somehow’ generated Spherical Electromagnetic In and Out Waves (*The Dynamic Waves of a Space Resonance*)** **but realised that there are no solutions for spherical vector electromagnetic waves (which are mathematical waves which require both a quantity of force and a direction of force, i.e. vector). Wolff had the foresight to try using real waves, which are Scalar (defined by their Wave-Amplitude only). And this then led to a series of remarkable discoveries.

‘Although the origin of spin has been a fascinating problem of physics for sixty years, spin itself is not the important result. Instead, the most extraordinary conclusion of the wave electron structure is that * the laws of physics and the structure of matter ultimately depend upon the waves from the total of matter in a universe *. Every particle communicates its wave state with all other matter so that the particle structure, energy exchange, and the laws of physics are properties of the entire ensemble. This is the origin of Mach’s Principle. The universal properties of the quantum space waves are also found to underlie the universal clock and the constants of nature”.